REEEC Noontime Scholars Lecture: Ingrid Nordgaard, “On the Frozen Sea: Exploring, Writing and Painting the Northern Frontier”

On June 20th, 2017, Ingrid Nordgaard (PhD Candidate in the Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures at Yale University) gave a REEEC Noontime Scholars Lecture entitled: “On the Frozen Sea: Exploring, Writing and Painting the Northern Frontier.”

The project, slated as the first chapter of her dissertation, “Aesthetics of the North: Russian Modernist Culture and Scandinavia 1891-1910,” examines the North and its aesthetic representations in Russian Modernist culture. In her dissertation, Nordgaard seeks to understand how and for what reasons Russia became invested in the North and Scandinavia. She hopes to show that the North—in different contexts understood either as an imagined geography or as a composite for real geographical locations—functioned as a creative repository for Russian cultural producers of the late imperial era.

For the writers and visual artists that Nordgaard studies, the North came to be understood as a mythical place that promised purity and rejuvenation, an escape from the pessimism of the end of the century. However, the North was also a geographical frontier, that is, a space of physical riches to be explored and conquered. She seeks to understand how these two approaches, one based on artistic considerations and the other on material interests, contributed to Modernist aesthetics between 1891 and 1910. By taking both approaches into account, Nordgaard will tie her discussion about aesthetic representations of the North to larger narratives that characterize the period – such as capitalism, nationalism, and questions of socioeconomic development – as well as comment on how modernism moves between cultures.

In her talk, Nordgaard focused on an 1894 journey in the northernmost part of Russia, Arkhangelsk and the Murmansk coast. The trip, led by Sergei Witte, finance minister of Russia at the time, aimed to search for a new naval base and to survey the area for the construction of a railroad that would connect Moscow to Arkhangelsk. This trip, which lasted three weeks in the summer of 1894, was recorded in the travel log of Evgeny Kochetov, entitled On the Frozen Sea: A Journey to the North, published in 1895. She argues that Kochetov’s book consciously creates something that Nordgaard coins as “aesthetics of the North.” In other words, she seeks to explore the making and components of the set of principles that together constitute the “aesthetic of the north” that Kochetov’s book represents. By investigating these question, Nordgaard asserts that we can see how Kochetov’s account connects to a bigger discussion about politics, nationalism, and about the function of literature and art in Russian Modernity.

Nordgaard called Kochetov’s travel logs a “hybrid literary product” because of its many registers and styles. However, she asserts that its agenda shines through – it is a narrative aimed at informing, inspiring, and educating the reader about North of Russia and its apparent economic and material potential. However, while Kochetov points the reader to the future, he also reminds the reader that the North has a special position in the Russian past. Kochetov continuously refers to Ivan III and all that he did for the development of Northern Russia, as well as mentioning that Peter the Great created a shipyard in Arkhangelsk. Kochetov’s writings treat the North as a region where the past and the future coexist. Although Kochetov’s writings were probably influenced by the voyage’s leading man, Witte, Nordgaard stressed that the travel logs should not be simply regarded as political propaganda. As Nordgaard argued, it is too conscious about encouraging, informing, and enticing the reader to explore for themselves. As Nordgaard stated, the travel log differs from other travel logs of the nineteenth century in that it is not just about brave men exploring the frontier, but it is an account that repeatedly reminds us that we might be able to do the same.

Nordgaard then turned to artistic depictions of the North, particularly those created by Konstantin Korovin. Korovin and Valentin Serov, were the artists responsible for the thirty illustrations and sketches that are included in Kochetov’s travel logs. However, Nordgaard focused on Korovin’s contribution to the 1896 All-Russia Exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod. Korovin was appointed as the designed and architect of one of the exhibition’s pavilions, which was dedicated to the Russian North. Within the pavilion he exhibited ten of his side-by-side large-scale paintings, which were adapted from sketches that Korovin created during trips to the North, funded by Savva Mamontov, another leader in the construction of a railway to Arkhangelsk.

Konstantin Korovin. “Fishing in the Murman Sea.” 1896.

Nordgaard noted their simultaneous attention to the beauty of the region and potential commercial value. The paintings in the series feature fishermen on the Murman Sea, the market at the Arkhangelsk Dock, the construction of the railway, and polar bears among nature. Thus, as Nordgaard asserts, the paintings combine different narratives about the North. The North is imagined as a land of potential riches and as concealing nature’s greatest bounties, while also a place where man’s struggles and is challenged by nature. Furthermore, since the railroad was already under construction at the time of the exhibition, the canvases also sell a product, that is, the Moscow-Arkhangelsk railroad and the North as a concept.

Thus, as Nordgaard explained, Kochetov’s travel log is a literary work that is extremely aware of the political and socioeconomic agenda of which it is a part. She asserted that his writings make it especially clear how government officials, political actors, artists, and writers come together to further the development of Russian culture from a political, cultural and aesthetic point of view. Also, Kochetov’s travel log and Korovin’s illustrations prove that commercial development does not have to take away from the mystique of the North. To Kochetov and Korovin, it is just as important to convey the beauty of the North, as it is to present it as an area with great commercial and industrial potential. Furthermore, the conscious construction of the aesthetics of the North paint a new picture of the construction of Russian image and identity. As Nordgaard stressed, by looking North, we are looking away from the centers of Berlin and Paris and turning our gaze toward the periphery, challenging traditional accounts about how, why, and where modernist aesthetics come into being.

Nadia Hoppe is a PhD candidate in Slavic Languages and Literatures at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Her research interests include Soviet and Post-Soviet film, art, and literature, as well as gender and critical theory.

Andrzej Stasiuk and the Myth of the Literary Gastarbajter

In his REEEC and EU Center co-sponsored Noontime Scholars Lecture, “Andrzej Stasiuk and the Myth of the Literary Gastarbajter,” Professor George Gasyna extrapolated on the particularities of post-communist marginality in the prose of the Polish novelist Andrzej Stasiuk. Stasiuk is a popular Polish author, journalist, and critic, whose most acclaimed works include Biały kruk (1995) and Opowieści galicyjskie (1995). Stasiuk’s subject matter often takes the form of Central and Eastern European travel literature, which invokes the mythologies of Eastern and Western European history. Perhaps for this reason, Stasiuk has been able to win notoriety and acclaim outside of Poland. He is also a personal favorite of mine; I find his prose enthralling and, at times, difficult both in form and subject matter.

Prof. George Gasyna

Prof. George Gasyna

The topic of the November 12 lecture was Stasiuk’s novel Dojczland (2007), which is set along the trajectory of the persona’s travels through Germany. In his view, Professor Gasyna suggested that Stasiuk uses his subject position as a platform to explore the other’s defense of marginality or subalternity. In this sense, the migrant worker-subject rejects assimilation and re-territorializes his host nation, a concept that was the crux of Professor Gasyna’s argument. It also raised many compelling questions: Is the Polish migrant in the same position as an African migrant? How does the subaltern re-territorialize?

During the lecture, Professor Gasyna provided a detailed background and close analysis of the novel in the context of Stasiuk’s larger collection of works. He characterized Dojczland as a pseudo-autobiography set along Stasiuk’s journey from the periphery to the metropolis. For centuries, Germany has served as a popular short-term migration destination for Poles, as well as Southern and Eastern Europeans seeking work. Professor Gasyna suggested that the Witold Gombrowicz’s Dzienniki (1969) served as a model, paradigm, and precursor for Polish travel works depicting the journey from the young Europe to the old Europe.

The term Dojczland is a Polonized version of the German word Deutschland, and according to Professor Gasyna, this provides evidence of the tension between the Polish migrant and the host nation. The journey to Germany becomes even more socio-culturally loaded as Stasiuk continues to engage in the practice of cathartic post-memory, specifically related to the Second World War. While that theme is relevant, there are other examples, which engage with the subject of re-territorialization without converging at Germany’s history, like Turkish-German director Fatih Akın’s Gegen die Wand (2004). Fatih Akın’s film, set in both Berlin and Istanbul, explores and complicates the issues of hybrid identity, gender, and cultural heritage without absconding the present.

Professor Gasyna noted the ironic disengagement of Stasiuk’s prose as the cult persona travels through the German countryside. According to him, the work revels in inverting the polarities of East and West, with Poland located in a liminal space of the misfit. He suggested that Stasiuk’s discourse of loneliness, internal dialogue, and post-colonial historicity lacks embodiment. He also asked if Stasiuk’s subject position is too preoccupied with nostalgia and sites of exclusion to facilitate an encounter between the other and modern Germany.

Professor Gasyna noted that Stasiuk’s journey is a little different from that of a normal gastarbajter (guest worker) in Germany because his journey takes him on a conference and reading circuit – since his work is in the cultural arena. At the same time, Professor Gasyna indicated that Stasiuk sees himself as literary gastarbajter and suggested that Stasiuk can conceive of empathetic interactions only with other migrants or immigrants to Germany. I wonder if it is possible to have empathy at all in Stasiuk’s imaginary Dojczland?

Professor Gasyna observed that Stasiuk’s discourse only hints at contiguity, and rejects both the gift of hospitality and the possibility of hybridity in the German cultural space.  That is, Stasiuk does not consider the black, Turkish, and Central European Germans as Germans. Rather than imagine the possibility of assimilation or incorporation into the German cultural space, Dojczland is a space that remains closed and inhuman for migrants and others. According to Professor Gasyna, Stasiuk’s persona becomes engrossed in the details and particularities of German cultural stereotypes, many of which are entrenched in the memory of Germany’s Nazi past. During his talk, he concluded with a discussion of the mechanisms of performativity, the imaginary, desire, prejudice, and reterritorialization, while he questioned if Stasiuk’s use of ossified stereotypes leads him to privilege nostalgia and cathartic post-memory over new self-knowledge.

Katerina Lakhmitko is a Ph.D. student in the Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her research interests include the late and post-communist culture, literature and film. Post-structuralist and semiotic theory, as well as close analysis of social mechanisms, inform her methodology.